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Introduction

The Submission School Project was set up in early 2009 to promote Brazilian Jiu Jitsu as an art and has steadily grown till its current form in East London. Unlike conventional Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) clubs it’s focus has been community oriented – bringing people together, giving all aspects of society an alternative option in keeping fit, as well as a practical and tried and tested self defence system, with the long term aim of promoting athletes for competitions domestically and internationally and hopefully to produce future Olympians.

Through the teaching of this art we aim to instil key social values and attributes in our participants – Confidence; motivation; discipline; focus; drive and commitment and other similar qualities that are crucial in the social development of a person and which can the individual to succeed in all aspects of life.

Our ultimate vision for the project is to take it to the developing world and aid in the social development of their countries children and young people.

Schools

Our schools policy has been carefully designed to achieve our overall goals of promoting our arts as well as contributing to the Every Child Matters Agenda criterion for children and young people.

We aim to provide an introductory syllabus of teaching to give participants a solid introduction to the art of BJJ, Judo and/or Wrestling. This would involve a structured lesson plan which would consist of warm up and stretching followed by technique tuition and finally followed by positional sparring and full sparring. Lesson length is around one hour fifteen minutes. The added bonus is that participants would also gain the benefit of a permanent discount rate at the Submission School Community Gym which is the base for the project in East Ham.

We aim to work with individual or clusters of schools and either in lesson time or after school hours to organise a teaching plan that can be rolled out over an academic year or a single term. The aim is to work around any constraints to enable the children and young people to participate and benefit from the project.

The aim of the project is to be completely inclusive, we wish to work with all demographics both primary and secondary school children.

Local Authorities

Submission School also wishes to work alongside the local authorities and police to cater for the more challenging individuals. Our aim is to instil a positive ethos into such individuals that will transform them into future role models and active community members.Every Child Matters Agenda

The Submission School project aims to meet the Every Child Matters Agenda:

1. Enjoying and Achieving – BJJ is a fantastic fun activity, it allows the participant to not only enjoy training but also builds confidence a sense of purpose and dependent on their level of dedication can lead to champions!

2. Being Healthy – One of the best forms of cardio vascular exercises around, participants see a marked improvement in strength, stamina and overall physical conditioning.

3. Staying Safe – BJJ has been proven as an effective self defence system, designed to neutralise the size advantage many attackers have over their victims.

4. Making a positive contribution – Participants have the opportunity to represent their country in international competitions.

5. Achieve economic wellbeing – BJJ for the successful practitioner can become a means of income via tuition, Submission School has an active policy of using in house participants to be the future instructors of the project once they have reached a certain level in their training.

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting.

(Two black-belt level practitioners competing in the World Jiu-Jitsu Championship. The technique being attempted is a triangle choke, a technique that has become synonymous with the art of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.)

It teaches that a smaller, weaker person can successfully defend against a bigger, stronger assailant by using leverage and proper technique — most notably by applying joint-locks and chokeholds to defeat the other person. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu can be trained for sport grappling tournaments (gi and no-gi) and mixed martial arts (MMA) competition. Sparring (commonly referred to as ‘rolling’) and live drilling play a major role in training, and a premium is placed on performance, especially in competition.

Today Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is one of the fastest growing martial arts in the world, it’s rapid rise in popularity is due to the many documented accounts of its ability to neutralise experts in other fighting systems due to its fighting philosophy.

The art’s rapid rise have led to calls for it to be made into a future Olympic sport as competition grappling has become hugely popular in the world arena in both the East and West.

Instructors

All of our Instructors are registered with their relevant federation and have undergone health and safety training and have the appropriate liability insurances. They are also subject to an enhanced CRB check to ensure that they are suitable to work with children and young people.

Sport, Education and Child and Youth Development

Physical activity is vital to the holistic development of young people, fostering their physical, social and emotional health. The benefits of sport reach beyond the impact on physical well-being and the value of the educational benefits of sport should not be under-estimated.

In the literature related to physical education and sport there is much debate across the world over definitions of physical education, sport and physical activity. There is also great variance in the standard age boundaries for youth world-wide.

These issues will not be explored in detail here. Rather a number of links to further reading and resources are provided after each sub-theme to direct readers to additional information.

Within schools, physical education is an essential component of quality education. Not only do physical education programmes promote physical activity, such programmes also correlate to improved academic performance under certain conditions. Sport can also, under the right conditions, provide healthy alternatives to deviant behaviour such as drug abuse, violence and crime.

Healthy Development of Children and Young People through Sport

Physical education and sport have an educational impact. Changes can be seen in (i) motor skills development and performance and (ii) educational potential. This shows the positive relationship between being involved in physical activities and psychosocial development.

Sport and physical education is fundamental to the early development of children and youth and the skills learned during play, physical education and sport contribute to the holistic development of young people. Through participation in sport and physical education, young people learn about the importance of key values such as:

 honesty,  teamwork,  fair play,  respect for themselves and others, and  adherence to rules.

It also provides a forum for young people to learn how to deal with competition and how to cope with both winning and losing. These learning aspects highlight the impact of physical education and sport on a child’s social and moral development in addition to physical skills and abilities.

In terms of physical and health aspects of child and youth development, there is an overwhelming amount of evidence that focuses on the (mostly positive) effects of sport and exercise on physical health, growth and development.

Long-term involvement in physical activity

Physical education and sport also build health activity habits that encourage life-long participation in physical activity. This extends the impact of physical education beyond the schoolyard and highlights the potential impact of physical education on public health.

To achieve broader goals in education and development, sports programmes must focus on the development of the individual and not only on the development of technical sports skills.

While the physical benefits of participation in sport are well known and supported by large volumes of empirical evidence, sport and physical activity can also have positive benefits on education.

Sport as a ‘hook’

Sport is an attractive activity for young people, and is often used as a draw card to recruit children and young people to health and education programmes. Sport and development projects that focus on educational outcomes use sport as a means to deliver educational messages to participants, and spectators in some cases.

Additionally, some programmes aim to promote and develop other aspects of education such as school attendance and leadership. Sport does not inherently provide positive educational outcomes. Much of the literature emphasises the crucial role of physical education teachers and other providers of physical activity and sport as determinants of educational experiences.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), for example, are using sport and play programmes to encourage young people, particularly girls and young women, to attend school within refugee camps across the world. In addition, UNICEF has a strong focus on using sport to campaign for girls’ education, promoting education through events and awareness campaigns.

Learning performance

Sport-based programmes have been shown to improve the learning performance of children and young people, encouraging school attendance and a desire to succeed academically. Whilst a majority of research into the health and development impacts of sport has been conducted in developed countries, there are studies that support this relationship in developing countries.

For example, a study on sports involvement among children and young people in Namibia has shown that those who participated in sport and physical activity were more likely to pass the Grade 10 examinations. There is further research that suggests this relationship continues in tertiary education.

Physical Education in Schools

Providing physical education both inside and outside of schools is crucial in helping young people to learn and develop life skills.

Physical education in the school system

A number of crucial components to the delivery of quality education have been identified by UNICEF. These include sport and opportunities for play, consistent with the rights of the child to optimum development.

Despite recognition of the positive impact sport has on education and child development, physical education is being

increasingly challenged within education systems across the world. Challenges include a decrease in:

 the amount of time allocated to physical education,  the number of trained staff,  the amount of training provided for physical education teachers, and spending on resources required to deliver physical education in schools.

Girls and young people with disabilities face additional barriers, which limit (and in many cases prevent) participation in physical education and sport in many countries.

Whilst physical education systems are vastly different across the world, a recent study conducted in 126 countries indicated that the marginalisation of physical education is near universal.

A large number of researchers are focusing on comparative studies in physical education and there have been examples of good practice, however, the situation in developing countries and regions has changed little in the past decade. This has serious implications for access to holistic and quality education for young people, particularly those living in developing countries.

Opportunities in community sport programmes

It is important to note that in some countries where physical education is minimal or non-existent within the school system, children and young people may access sport and physical activity through community programmes.

These may be introduced by community clubs, a range of other organisations, or through unstructured or casual games and play. Given the very poor rates of school attendance, opportunities for physical education and sport outside of schools can also provide educational advantages to children and young people.

Challenges with enrolment in school

For the period 2005 to 2006, UNICEF estimated that 90 million children were not enrolled in school. Net secondary school enrolment is only 52 percent for boys and 44 percent for girls, compared to 90 percent enrolment rate for both boys and girls in developed countries. Young people in developing countries therefore face an uncertain future given these reports on school enrolment.

Social and Emotional Development

In terms of the social aspects of child and youth development, there are three main areas that have been under consideration: inclusion and community building; character-building; and delinquency and community safety.

Inclusion and community building

The role of sport in inclusion has shown to be strongly linked to building social cohesion and social capital among young people and adults in communities. Sport has been used as a practical tool to engage young people in their communities through volunteering, resulting in higher levels of leadership, community engagement and altruism among young people.

Positive peer relationships between young people are encouraged through physical activity and coaching is considered a key aspect of how physical activity can contribute to social inclusion among young people.

Social inclusion also relates to offering equal opportunities to sport and education programmes regardless of gender,

ethnicity or ability. There is increasing attention on programme development both in and out of schools for example, to include girls, people with disabilities and refugees.

Character-building

The reasoning is that moral behaviour is acquired through social interaction that occurs through sport and physical activity conducted in a collective. Whether or not sport has a positive impact on character-building in an individual is highly dependent on the context of the programme and the values promoted and developed.

In this respect, physical education teachers, coaches, trainers or community leaders have a determining influence on a young person’s sporting experience and on the degree of ‘character-building’ that can arise. Some research also indicates that ‘physical activity outside of competitive sport’ may be more effective in promoting mutual understanding and empathy among young people.

Delinquency and community safety

Research suggests that sport can be used as a means to reduce deviant behaviour among children and youth. But participating in physical activity does not directly impact on deviant behaviour. Accordingly, programmes should combine sports and physical activities with leadership and job-skills development and training to address risk factors in children and youth.

The majority of programmes that target delinquent youth aim to act as either diversions for delinquent youth away from other delinquent youth or behaviours; rehabilitation activities for those previously involved in delinquent behaviour; or gateways to engage the target group in sport in order to establish relationships with authority figures, social services, educational programmes and marginalised groups.

‘Gateway’ programmes seek to address the underlying risk factors for crime involvement, early school leaving, and other social problems that contribute towards delinquency by providing ‘at risk’ youth with access to social and job-skills training, education programmes and/or leadership programmes.

To increase the success of a sports programme in this area, activities should be provided through supportive, ‘bottom-up’ approaches; the activity must be purposeful to the individual, tailored to their individual needs; and de-emphasise regulations and winning.

Policy Developments

International policies have influenced the delivery of physical education and sport across the world. While these policies may not always turn into action, they have helped national-level policy to develop in many parts of the world.

In 1959, the Declaration on the Rights of the Child was one of the first international instruments linking physical activity and education for children stating that “the child shall have full opportunity for play and recreation, which should be directed to the same purposes as education.”

UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, the UN’s lead agency for physical education and sport, introduced the first landmark policy related to physical education in 1978. Titled, the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport introduced by UNESCO in 1978, it declares that “every human being has a fundamental right of access to physical education and sport, which are essential for the full development of his personality.”

Read more about the International Charter’s consideration of people with disabilities’ access to sport and physical activities.

A serious decline in the presence of physical education during the 1990’s led to the development of two World Summits on Physical Education. These initiatives highlight the level of international policy interest, awareness of governments around the world and subsequent calls for action to promote and develop physical education world-wide.

World Summits

The first World Summit was held in Berlin, Germany in 1999 and the second in Magglingen, Switzerland in 2005. A major outcome of each World Summit was an Action Agenda presented to Ministers responsible for Physical Education and Sport.

United Nations and International Policy

The United Nations Inter-Agency Taskforce on Sport for Development and Peace advocates the use of sport to achieve each of the Millennium Development Goals, not only the second MDG that aims for universal primary education. The taskforce recognises that education is central to the achievement of all of the MDGs and sport is a key component of quality education.

Access the UN Inter-Agency Taskforce on Sport for Development and Peace report

A large number of countries have introduced national policies related to the provision of physical education in schools and yet even with these international activities and national instruments in place, there is a large gap between policies and the actual realities of physical education practices in schools worldwide.

Sport and physical activity as an entitlement

Many international and domestic policies highlight the role of sport as a key component of child development along with the associated aspects related to sport, play and recreation, such as the right to participate, to freedom of expression and a right to be involved ‘freely in cultural life and the arts’ (as stated in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child). This allows for sport, recreation and play to be considered not only as a necessary component of child and youth development (a ‘needs’ based perspective) but also one in which sport, recreation and play are considered as entitlements (a ‘rights- based’ perspective).

Action that incorporates sport in education and child & youth development should be aware of how sport, recreation and play can be considered as both a necessity and as an entitlement.

Practical Considerations on Sport in Education

Leadership in sport

The real benefits of sport involvement appear among children and youth who have experienced appropriate forms of leadership. For example, research shows that martial arts taught with a philosophy of respect, patience, responsibility and honour were related to decreased delinquency, when compared to martial arts taught with a focus on free sparring and self-defence.

Efforts should be concentrated towards leadership training, the processes of training both professionals and volunteers who are likely to lead such programmes. Coaches and physical educators have the potential to provide strong leadership if they fully activate this aspect of their work with children and young people.

Positive social interaction between peers also links strongly with sporting and educational outcomes and as such, peer educators and leaders also require quality training and support.

Attitudes towards school

There is growing interest among the relevant Sport & Development actors in the relationship between sport and attitudes towards school among children and young people. A number of studies show that once sports are introduced, pupil attendance increases. But the distinction between recreational and competitive youth sport and physical activity must be drawn to understand the extent to which sport acts as a magnet or a repellent to school.

Evidence among those at risk of being excluded from school shows that an increase in the availability of sports activities would make the prospect of attending school more appealing. In this sense, sports activities in schools act as a gateway (if presented in appropriate ways) to drawing children and young people towards attending school.

On the other hand, research has shown that excessive and intensive training for competitive youth sport can act as an obstacle to fulfilling educational and academic pursuits among young athletes who compete in higher-level sports competitions.

Cases in which adults (including sports coaches and even parents) push young athletes to abandon their studies to focus almost full-time on their sport pursuits are prevalent in competitive youth sports.